Each layer is one atom thick
It is 200 times stronger than structural steel
Harder than diamond
1 square meter weighs less than 1 gram
Stretches up to 20% of its length without inducing defects
Thermal and electric, better than copper
Has direct applications in medicine
Sustainable and biodegradable
Graphene is a two-dimensional, atomic-scale material that is made of a single layer of carbon atoms that have a high level of cohesion and are arranged in a uniform surface, slightly undulating, with a similar appearance to a honeycomb lattice because of its hexagonal configuration.
It is the strongest material known in nature: resistant and flexible, graphene also has the highest electrical and thermal conductivity ever witnessed. This allows for heat dissipation and withstanding intense electrical currents without heating.
It is 200 times stronger than steel, and even stronger than diamond, while at the same time has a thickness that varies between 1 and 10 carbon atoms. Because of its thinness, this material is considered two-dimensional; it is the only material that can remain stable at just one atom thick.
It is virtually transparent, and so dense that not even helium can pass through it. It also exhibits many other qualities, such as high electron mobility, a property that will make it particularly interesting in the future for its potential use in fast nanodevices.
Graphene has incredible mechanical, electronic, chemical, magnetic, and optical properties. In addition to this, since it’s made of pure carbon, it is abundantly available in nature and entirely ecologically friendly.
For all these reasons, graphene is very promising for thousands of applications in very different fields. It has the potential to replace fundamental materials such as silicon during the next decade. The array of possibilities for its applications is so wide and so varied that it has the potential to lead to a technological revolution.
It was discovered by Konstantin Novoselov and Andre Geim in 2004, both winners of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2010.
It is harder than diamond, making it the toughest material known in nature.
It is two-dimensional, and 100.000 times thinner than a human hair.
It is ultra-light but still dense, having a large specific surface area (SSA) of 2,600 m2/g.
It is elastic and flexible, and can be rolled into a tube to form nanotubes or other shapes.
It has a high thermal and electric conductivity, greater than that of copper or silver.
It is transparent, like glass, which gives it optical properties.
It heats up less when carrying electrons (lower Joule effect) and consumes less electricity than silicon for the same task.
It can be used to detect ionizing radiation.
It works as a frequency multiplier, therefore making it possible to work at high clock frequencies.
It can transform solar energy into electric energy.
It can react chemically with other substances to form compounds with alternative properties.
It is dense and waterproof, resistant to penetration by all kinds of liquids and gases, with the exception of water molecules.
It is bactericidal, but still allows cell culture.
It is biocompatible and non-toxic for biological cells.
It is an environmentally friendly material, producing no ecologically harmful effects.